A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure to place a healthy kidney from a live or deceased donor into a person whose kidneys no longer function properly.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located on either side of the spine just below the rib cage. Each one is about the size of a fist. Their main function is to filter and remove excess waste, minerals and fluid from the blood by producing urine.
When your kidneys lose this filtering ability, harmful levels of fluid and waste accumulate in your body, which can raise your blood pressure and result in kidney failure (end-stage renal disease, which is also known as end-stage kidney disease). End-stage renal disease occurs when the kidneys have lost about 90 percent of their ability to function normally.
End stage kidney disease causes the kidneys to stop functioning and that is the stage of Kidney transplant. However, the causes of ESRD (End stage Renal Disease) are Chronic Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus.
Living-Donor : In a living donation, one of a donor's two healthy kidneys are removed. This kidney is transplanted into the kidney patient. A donor who is fit and well before the operation will be able to live a completely normal life with the remaining healthy kidney. The most successful transplants come from living donors. In India, only a living relative donates a kidney for transplant. A living related transplant is more likely to work than a cadaveric transplant.
Cadaveric Transplant is a kidney removed from someone who has died. Cadaveric kidneys are only removed after a series of tests have established that the donor is brain dead. This means that the part of the brain called the brainstem, which controls breathing, has permanently stopped working. A brain-dead patient is only being kept alive by a life-support machine.